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Trade of medicinal plants used as immunostimulants in Mexico City.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
The information for medicinal plants without pharmacological research was obtained from both undergraduate and postgraduate theses, in addition to peer-reviewed articles, and scientific books. Advances in Cancer Research. Published online Mar 3. Justicia spicigera and kaempferitrin Figure 1its active compound, showed in vitro immunostimulatory effects [ 1454 ]. Vademecum de plantas medicinales del municipio de puente nacional, Veracruz [Bachelor thesis] Xalapa, Mexico: Further pharmacokinetic studies will provide additional pharmacological information prior to carrying out clinical trials.
The information for medicinal plants without pharmacological research was obtained from both undergraduate and postgraduate theses, in addition to peer-reviewed articles, and scientific books.
::Biblioteca digital de la medicina tradicional mexicana::
Medicinal plants with pharmacological evidence of their immunostimulant effects. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: Toxicological studies are necessary to provide safety in the use of plant extracts and their compounds in clinical trials.
Innate immunity consists of cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer NK cells, which are the first line of host defence [ 23 ]. In the order of most endangered, Juglans jamaicensisCedrela odorataand Lophophora williamsii are cataloged as vulnerable, whereas Taxodium mucronatumRhizophora mangleEysenhardtia polystachyaCordia alliodoraand Hymenaea courbaril are cataloged as of least concern [ 99 ]. Antitumor effects and immune regulation activities of a purified polysaccharide extracted from Juglan regia.
The immune system is a complex organization of leukocytes, antibodies, and blood factors that protect the body against pathogens [ 1 ]. Josabad Alonso-Castro, and A.
Nevertheless, the in vivo immunostimulatory effects remain to be performed with Justicia spicigerakaempferitrin, and masticadienonic acid. Usos tradicionales de los recursos naturales. Immunomodulatory activities of Punarnavine, an alkaloid from Boerhaavia diffusa. However, the toxicity of the mistletoe species should be assessed.
In the order of most endangered, Juglans jamaicensisCedrela odorataand Lophophora williamsii are cataloged as vulnerable, whereas Taxodium mucronatumRhizophora mangleEysenhardtia polystachyaCordia alliodoraand Hymenaea courbaril are cataloged as of least concern [ 99 ].
Pharmacological properties of the carob tree Hymenaea courbaril Linneaus interesting for the food industry. View at Google Scholar Z. Chemical structures of some compounds with immunostimulatory effects isolated from medicinal plants.
This review provides ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological information about plants and their active compounds used as immunostimulants in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
To our knowledge, there are no pharmacokinetic studies carried out with plant compounds cited in this aoxaquea. Some of the in vitro and in vivo tests used to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of plant extracts and compounds include the following: Taking this into consideration, further studies with plants from the Smilax and Juglans genera should be carried out. Table 4 In vitro immunostimulatory effects of plant compounds.
The recommended administration is 3 times daily. Proliferation of RAW These two components inhibit the mitochondrial respiration and the DNA replication of pathogens and cancer cells [ 7 ]. Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon; This review provides ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological information about plants and their active compounds used as immunostimulants in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
La Fruta, el Oro de Mil Colores. Plantas Medicinales de Puerto Rico: The authors wish to thank the Directorate for Research Support and Postgraduate Programs at the University of Guanajuato for their support in the editing of the Slud version of this paper.
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Masticadienonic acid Triterpenoid 0. Plantas Medicinales del Estado de Veracruz. Kaempferitrin Flavonoid 1—25 Induction of phagocytosis 0. Family Scientific name Plant part Extract Model of immunosuppression and duration of the experiment [range of dose tested] Immunostimulatory effects compared to immunosuppressed mice Reference Anacardiaceae Amphipterygium adstringens Schltdl.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Articles from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Assessment of toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and oaxsquea activities of Hymenaea courbaril Fabaceae in Drosophila melanogaster and mice.
A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants herboalria been tested using in vitro 11 compounds and in vivo 2 compounds assays. Smilaxin, a novel protein with immunostimulatory, antiproliferative, and HIVreverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from fresh Smilax glabra rhizomes.
The criteria for the selection of reports in this review were as follows: Proliferation of lymphocytes 0. Authors are encouraged to perform more than one immunostimulatory test in further studies to provide more information on the immunostimulant effects of plant extracts or compounds.
Asteraceae induces immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Some of the medicinal plants cited in our survey have been pharmacologically investigated.